Communication of Pheromone information

Cowgill (1966) observed that Perodicticus potto Muller produces a secretion in the circumgenital area which attracts insects eaten by the potto. The brachial glands of the slender loris (Loris tardigradus L.) discharge an unpleasant odor when the animal is handled. This might serve to repel predators (Seitz 1969; Petter and Hladik 1970). Since functions other than intra- specific communication are not a subject of this review, the above reports will not be discussed further. This chapter, then, will present a discussion of those functions which seem to be pheromonal, using a few selected examples reported in the literature. 19.3. Communication of information concerning the physiological and emotional condition of the individual 19.3.1. Species, sex, individual identity and social statu It seems reasonable to assume that in many species, general body odor, excretions, saliva and skin gland secretions used in marking serve as carriers of information on the species, sex, age, identity, and sexual, social and emotional state of the indivi- dual which produces them. Such messages could then have important functions in several different areas of behavior. In many non-primate mammals, chemical communication of messages of the above type has been found (Muller-Schwarze ch. 16 this volume). Learn more at In primates, however, little experimental analysis of the amount and character of information concerning the physiological and emotional condition of individuals is available. Seitz (1969) and Epple (1970) showed that Nycticebus coucang and Callithrix jacchus L. recognize species-specific odors of urine and scent marked objects. Evi- dence for olfactory recognition of sex and identity is provided by Seitz (1969). In tests in which he measured the time a male and a female Nycticebus coucang spent sniffing samples of their own urine, that of a strange male conspecific and that of a strange female, he found that the male subject discriminated between his own urine, that of another male and that of a female. The female discriminated her own urine from that of a male but did not show a sniffing preference for the urine of a strange female over her own. In our own laboratory, we have recently started to analyze the messages contain- ed in the complex scent marks of a species of South American marmoset monkey (Saguinus fuscicollis Spix)(Epple 1971, 1972, 1973a,b). This species possesses large scent glands in the circumgenital, suprapubic and sternal areas (Perkins 1966). Scent marking is performed by rubbing the glandular areas against items of the environment. When the combined clrcumgenital and suprapubic glands are used, a

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